Tuesday, 20 June 2017

Why you should get HbA1C and fasting insulin done?

HbA1C tells about the average blood glucose level of last three months. Its value should be up to 5.7. 5.8 to 6.3 is labeled as prediabetes.

 Fasting insulin is a proxy indicator of insulin resistance and impending diabetes. Its normal range is 2 to 25. But when one is fasting it should be near zero, or as low as possible.

Our diet plan has four benefits:

1) You lose fats/weight
2) You lose tummy
3) Your HbA1C decreases...meaning from prediabetes stage you become nondiabetic
4) Your fasting insulin level decreases, indicating that your body is becoming more sensitive to insulin or you are postponing your diabetes!

Hence to monitor your progress we advise you to repeat weight and waist circumference every month and HbA1C and fasting insulin every three months.

So please get the tests done to monitor all benefits of the diet plan

Monday, 19 June 2017

How to Calculate Body Mass Index (BMI) ?

BMI means body mass index.

To calculate this you must know your weight in kilogram and height in meters. Now get square of your height in meters. Divide your weight in Kg by square of your height in meters.

This value is expressed as Kg per meter square. The normal value is up to 25. More than this till 29.99 is called overweight. After 30 it is called obesity.

For Asians it should be preferably below 23. Overweight and obesity is associated with hypertension, diabetes and heart attacks etc.
I hope now you know about BMI.

Monday, 19 December 2016

Migraine Frequently Asked Questions - Diseases and Health Care

What is the migraine pain?

A migraine is a severe, painful headache that can be preceded or accompanied by sensory warning signs such as flashes of light, blind spots, tingling in the arms and legs, nausea, vomiting, and increased sensitivity to light and sound. The excruciating pain that migraines bring can last for hours or even days.

Where does a migraine come from?

Migraine tends to affect people between 15-55 years of age. Some people who suffer from migraines can clearly identify triggers or factors that cause the headaches such as allergies, light and stress. Some people get a warning prodrome, preceding the onset of a migraine headache.

Where does it hurt when you have a migraine?

A migraine is usually an intense pounding headache that can last for hours or even days. The pounding or pulsing pain usually begins in the forehead, the side of the head or around the eyes. The headache gradually gets worse. Just about any movement, activity, bright lights or loud noises seem to make it hurt more.

How do you know if you have a migraine headache?

Symptoms associated with a migraine headache include:
» nausea.
» pain behind one eye or ear.
» pain in the temples.
» seeing spots or flashing lights.
» sensitivity to light and/or sound.
» temporary vision loss.
» vomiting.

Migraine Treatment

Migraine treatments can help stop symptoms and prevent future attacks.

Many medications have been designed to treat migraines. Some drugs often used to treat other conditions also may help relieve or prevent migraines. Medications used to combat migraines fall into two broad categories:

Pain-relieving medications. Also known as acute or abortive treatment, these types of drugs are taken during migraine attacks and are designed to stop symptoms.
Preventive medications. These types of drugs are taken regularly, often on a daily basis, to reduce the severity or frequency of migraines.
Your treatment strategy depends on the frequency and severity of your headaches, the degree of disability your headaches cause, and your other medical conditions.

Some medications aren't recommended if you're pregnant or breast-feeding. Some medications aren't given to children. Your doctor can help find the right medication for you.

Signs and symptoms

Migraines typically present with self-limited, recurrent severe headache associated with autonomic symptoms. About 15–30% of people with migraines experience migraines with an aura and those who have migraines with aura also frequently have migraines without aura. The severity of the pain, duration of the headache, and frequency of attacks are variable. A migraine lasting longer than 72 hours is termed status migrainosus. There are four possible phases to a migraine, although not all the phases are necessarily experienced: 

The prodrome, which occurs hours or days before the headache
The aura, which immediately precedes the headache
The pain phase, also known as headache phase
The postdrome, the effects experienced following the end of a migraine attack


The underlying causes of migraines are unknown. However, they are believed to be related to a mix of environmental and genetic factors. They run in families in about two-thirds of cases and rarely occur due to a single gene defect. While migraines were once believed to be more common in those of high intelligence, this does not appear to be true. A number of psychological conditions are associated, including depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder, as are many biological events or triggers.


Migraines are believed to be a neurovascular disorder with evidence supporting its mechanisms starting within the brain and then spreading to the blood vessels. Some researchers believe neuronal mechanisms play a greater role, while others believe blood vessels play the key role. Others believe both are likely important. One theory is related to increased excitability of the cerebral cortex and abnormal control of pain neurons in the trigeminal nucleus of the brainstem. High levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine, are believed to be involved. 


The diagnosis of a migraine is based on signs and symptoms. Neuroimaging tests are not necessary to diagnose migraine, but may be used to find other causes of headaches in those whose examination and history do not confirm a migraine diagnosis. It is believed that a substantial number of people with the condition remain undiagnosed. 

The diagnosis of migraine without aura, according to the International Headache Society, can be made according to the following criteria, the "5, 4, 3, 2, 1 criteria": 

» Five or more attacks—for migraine with aura, two attacks are sufficient for diagnosis.
» Four hours to three days in duration
» Two or more of the following:
» Unilateral (affecting half the head);
» Pulsating;
» Moderate or severe pain intensity;
» Worsened by or causing avoidance of routine physical activity

If someone experiences two of the following: photophobia, nausea, or inability to work or study for a day, the diagnosis is more likely. In those with four out of five of the following: pulsating headache, duration of 4–72 hours, pain on one side of the head, nausea, or symptoms that interfere with the person's life, the probability that this is a migraine is 92%. In those with fewer than three of these symptoms the probability is 17%

Wednesday, 2 November 2016

Thalassaemia Frequently Asked Questions - Diseases and Health Care

Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder in which the body makes an abnormal form of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the protein molecule in red blood cells that carries oxygen. The disorder results in excessive destruction of red blood cells, which leads to anemia. Anemia is a condition in which your body doesn’t have enough normal, healthy red blood cells.

What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Thalassemias?

  1. A pale and listless appearance.
  2. Poor appetite.
  3. Dark urine (a sign that red blood cells are breaking down)
  4. Slowed growth and delayed puberty.
  5. Jaundice (a yellowish color of the skin or whites of the eyes)
  6. An enlarged spleen, liver, or heart.

Thalassaemia Frequently Asked Questions - Diseases and Health Care Is thalassemia blood cancer?

Thalassemias are inherited blood disorders that cause the body to make fewer healthy red blood cells and less hemoglobin than normal. Mild or severe anemia can also be present in people with thalassemias. The two major types of thalassemia are alpha and beta, named after defects in the hemoglobin protein chains.

What is the disease thalassemia?

Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder in which the body makes an abnormal form of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the protein molecule in red blood cells that carries oxygen. The disorder results in excessive destruction of red blood cells, which leads to anemia.

What is beta thalassemia major?

Usually, they are mildly anemic and their red blood cells are smaller than normal. Beta thalassemia major (Cooley's anemia) happens when both of the beta globin genes are mutated (changed) and the mutations are severe. This is the most severe form of beta thalassemia.

What is thalassemia major disease?

Thalassemia Major. Thalassemia major occurs when a child inherits two mutated genes, one from each parent. Children born with thalassemia major usually develop the symptoms of severe anemia within the first year of life. They lack the ability to produce normal, adult hemoglobin and experience chronic fatigue.

Is there a cure for beta thalassemia?

People with severe thalassemia depend on blood transfusions to give them working red blood cells. A type of bone marrow transplant has been used to try to cure thalassemia, but it's hard to find compatible donors. And even if a donor can be found, there's still a risk that the patient's body will reject the transplant.

What is the thalassemia trait?

Thalassemia is an inherited blood disorder in which the body makes an abnormal form of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the protein molecule in red blood cells that carries oxygen. The disorder results in excessive destruction of red blood cells, which leads to anemia.

Can you give blood if you have thalassemia minor?

Yes it is possible for carrier to donate blood if their hemoglobin (iron) level meets the international criteria for donation. Yes it is ok for carriers to donate stem cells, such as those in bone marrow, for his/her diseased sibling. The problem is that carriers could have thalassemia major children.

Is thalassemia more common in males or females?

If both genes are affected, the result is moderate to severe anemia. The severe form of beta thalassemia is known as thalassemia major or Cooley's anemia. Thalassemias affect males and females. The disorders occur most often among people of Italian, Greek, Middle Eastern, Southern Asian, and African descent.

Thursday, 15 September 2016

Wine Consumption: The Pros and the Cons

Drinking Wine

Should you or shouldn’t you?

The Plusses to Drinking Wine:

  • 1-2 glasses of wine per day appear to reduce stress and the effects of chronic inflammation.
  • Red wine contains polyphenols and this can be helpful to combat arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries)
  • When you drink wine with a meal it makes the meal seem like a special occasion and thus you may eat more slowly (which enhances digestion)
  • It is a better choice than sugary mixed drinks because these mixed drinks contain more sugar and thus spikes insulin.
  • Wine drinkers tend to sip rather than guzzle their beverage which means fewer intakes of alcohol, sugar and calories.
  • A moderate amount which is equivalent to 5 oz. per day has been shown to lower your risk of heart disease.
  • Moderate amounts of red wine (1-3 glasses per day, 3-4 times per week) may reduce your risk of dementia, depression, and some cancers.
  • Good News for you white wine drinkers!  White wine has been shown to have many of the same positive health benefits as red wine.

Downside to Drinking Wine

  • If you drink alcohol in excessive amounts it can increase your risk for breast cancer, cause brain damage and damage to the liver and other organs
  • Red wine does contain the antioxidant resveratrol that is found in the skin of grapes.  Resveratrol is good for fighting inflammation, heart disease, blood clotting, and cancer.  However the amount of resveratrol in wine is very low and to get the benefits of this powerful antioxidant, you would need to consume several bottles-not a good idea!  Add purple and black grapes to your diet and supplement with resveratrol for heart disease instead.
  • Those who consume more than 5 oz. of red wine per day have a greater risk of heart disease.  Other studies show that 1-2 glasses of red wine per day can also lower your risk of stroke but more than this amount can increase your risk.
  • When you start to go beyond moderate amounts of wine, the negative effects outweigh the benefits-for those who drink 2-3 glasses of red wine every day they have increased risk of liver disease, depression, weight gain and diabetes.
  • Wines are still mostly empty calories that you may consume instead of healthy food choices so be cognizant if wine is replacing food in your diet.
  • A glass of red wine (5 oz.) contains on average 125 calories.  So if you are consuming say 2 glasses 4 times per week that is 1,000 added calories per week.  It can easily cause the weight to creep on.